New perspective on value co-creation in network structures
The information value chain (1) reveals changes due to digitalization
Decreasing marginal costs
Decreasing marginal costs due to ever cheaper storage or computing power leads to more innovation, faster time-to-market as well as new business models. While existing processes or services are improved, completely new processes or services will be created as well.
Decreasing transaction costs
Decreasing transaction costs lead to dissolving company boundaries, since modern information and communication technology provides cheap and easy-to-use possibilities to transfer information or values (i.e. APIs). Ultimately, this promotes the emergence of business ecosystems with multiple different actors.
"Business Ecosystems are dynamically evolving communities of interdependent social and economic actors which interact through coordinated technologies, norms and rules to co-create and co-capture value in relation to a shared purpose permitting the alignment of their individual goals."
- M. Burkhalter (CC Ecosystems)
Dynamically evolving communities
Actors within a business ecosystem offer specific capabilities that can be used to complement a value creation process involving various actors. As their capabilities might change over time, so does the ecosystem.
The shared purpose functions as a mutual reference point that manifests itself as a concrete product or service (i.e. mobility, while the concrete service might be a ride on the train).
Interdependent social and economic actors
Business ecosystems describe various autonomous agents (or groups of agents) that pursue their own goals and needs and who participate in the business ecosystem in order to fulfill them.
Coordinated technologies, norms and rules
In order for the ecosystem to function, the actors use a shared set of norms and rules and leverage a shared technology that supports their interactions around the shared value purpose.
Co-create and co-capture value
Each actor contributes to the value creation process, however, only as long as each actor is able to capture a fraction of value for himself will he participate in the ecosystem.
There are four archetypes of actors within a business ecosystem who work together to co-create and co-capture value.
The service offering method can be used to design Ecosystems and to show the development mechanisms.
Method for the design of an Ecosystem service offering
Combining the service perspective and the allocentric business model perspective
The business ecosystem perspective offers a strong analytical perspective – nevertheless fundamental misconceptions persist.
“Our company wants to build/ buy an ecosystem”
“While others offer a single service, we can offer a whole ecosystem”
“The ecosystem belongs to single company like Apple / Amazon / Airbnb / Alibaba …”
“The platform is equal to the ecosystem”
“Ecosystem is just a fancy word for market place”